The rainbow or Benton’s hologram was invented in 1968 by Dr Stephan A Benton and Polaroid Corporation (later MIT) Rainbow holograms are designed to be viewed under white light illumination, rather than laser light which was required before this. The rainbow holography recording process uses a horizontal slit to eliminate vertical parallax in the output image, greatly reducing spectral blur white preserving three-dimensionality for most observers. A viewer moving up or down in front of a rainbow hologram sees changing spectral colours rather than different vertical perspectives. Stereopsis and horizontal motion parallax, two relatively powerful cues to depth are preserved.
The holograms found on credit cards are examples of rainbow holograms e.g the bird on a Visa card.
My work with reflective hologram
Reflective hologram is a material which was developed for the commercial printing field with the limitations of a commercial printing press. From 1994 I have developed methods, mediums and techniques for working with this material to make it more adaptable for art works. This gave me the opportunity for a greater vocabulary and more artistic expression combined with conventional art materials – creating multiple images on the one plane which morph from one image to another as the viewer moves around the art work. This development led to the granting of a patent in 1998 in the use of hologram. This technique is constructed on a 2 dimensional plane as opposed to holography which is a projected in 3 dimensions.
My holographic art works exhibit change similar to film – the difference being that instead of a strip of film or video, all the images are constructed (drawn) on the one 2D plane. Although film is projected, reflective hologram is activated by any light source. Movement of a frame of film produces motion, colour and composition providing the image has, or is altered, although each frame is static. With my work and my control of the reflective hologram the images remain still and it is the movement of the viewer that creates animation of line, form and composition as well as considerable colour change of the imagery on the canvas.
“Since 1994 my art practise has been to explore the phenomena of change with reflective hologram and use its properties to develop statements/concepts on a 2-dimensional field with a 3-dimensional medium that challenge perceived perceptions of static continuity.”One of the main mediums in my works that assists in the development of the concept is reflective hologram with its dynamic spectral qualities, which corresponds to my interest in change/movement/multiplicity.
It has always struck me to look at the world as stilled moments as unsatisfying or unfinished stories. My aim has/is to find ways that show more without relying on one static image of view. The Futurists (a term coined by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti), emphasized discarding the static and irrelevant art of the past. They celebrated change, originality, and innovation in culture and society and glorified the new technology of the twentieth century, with emphasis on dynamism, speed, energy and power. They developed concepts such as “simultaneous vision” – the concept of combining different viewpoints of a subject into a single, coherent image (1), and “simultaneity – the rendering of motion by simultaneously showing many aspects of a moving object.
This interest in capturing a single moment in a series of planes was derived from cubism (2). Artists working with these concepts at that time were Balla, Picasso, Braque and Du Champ. Although not influenced by these artists, I have found them inspiring.In a similar way my work relies on change and multiplicity. However, departing in distinct ways the medium I use/developed reflective hologram, is vastly different than paint having 3D properties, is activated by a light source, giving off spectral light (rainbowing). I have managed to break this down into pure single colour. To allow me to control morphing of image into image. Up, down, right, left, dynamic interplay of imagery. This produces a moving narrative or animation radically changing concept or enhancing a proposed concept. While this is occurring colour is emanating a shifting panorama of perceptions and emotive feel. My challenge has been to keep compositional structures elegant whilst talking of multiplicity of a particular subject. There are many shifting compositions in the one work. In the case of the painted rendering of the futurist’s simultaneous vision, the images are stilled on the one plane.
Whereas with my work a multiplicity of changes views occur showing/ projecting form, colour, line, complex 3 dimensional spatial juxtapositions which morph as the viewer moves around the art work.These properties allow me to explore the concept of eventual transitions/flux ideology, objects, seasons, movement, emotions of the world in its moment of change in many coherent images which is extremely difficult, if not impossible with paint.It is not just manifestation of change, or documentation of event after event it is the pursuing of aesthetic values using a matrix of imagery by the use of the combination of abstraction text figuration where every image in the one work produces a painting which I aim to be conceptually sound compositionally satisfying moving (that challenge perceptual ideology) and supporting the following images with an aim of producing a coherent event of multiplicity perceived from whatever viewer space is occupied.” Adriano Gemelli
|Holograms and Art
Artists have been into holograms since 1962 when the laser technology necessary to create them was invented. At the time holographic technology was even hailed as a medium of the future for its ability to turn space inside out with its unusual spatial, volumetric and sequential qualities.
|In 1973 Salvidor Dali created “First Cylindric Chromo-Hologram Portrait of Alice Cooper’s Brain” which…
[…] depicts a three-dimensional Alice Cooper wearing two million dollars worth of jewellery including a tiara and necklace while holding a statuette of Venus De Milo as if it were a microphone. A plaster sculpture of Alice’s brain, topped by a chocolate éclair covered in ants, another Dalí oeuvre, was placed behind the cross-legged rock star and the set-up was documented by Dalí using (then) cutting-edge hologram technology.
|In July 2012 the New Museum in New York presented “Pictures from the Moon, an exhibition of rarely seen holographic works by several major artists including Bruce Nauman, Louise Bourgeois, Eric Orr, Ed Ruscha and James Turrell (who had a Large holograms show at Pace Wildenstein in 2009).|