The rainbow or Benton’s hologram was invented in 1968 by Dr Stephan A Benton and Polaroid Corporation (later MIT) Rainbow holograms are designed to be viewed under white light illumination, rather than laser light which was required before this. The rainbow holography recording process uses a horizontal slit to eliminate vertical parallax in the output image, greatly reducing spectral blur white preserving three-dimensionality for most observers. A viewer moving up or down in front of a rainbow hologram sees changing spectral colours rather than different vertical perspectives. Stereopsis and horizontal motion parallax, two relatively powerful cues to depth are preserved.
The holograms found on credit cards are examples of rainbow holograms e.g the bird on a Visa card
|Holograms and Art
Artists have been into holograms since 1962 when the laser technology necessary to create them was invented. At the time holographic technology was even hailed as a medium of the future for its ability to turn space inside out with its unusual spatial, volumetric and sequential qualities.
|In 1973 Salvidor Dali created “First Cylindric Chromo-Hologram Portrait of Alice Cooper’s Brain” which…
[…] depicts a three-dimensional Alice Cooper wearing two million dollars worth of jewellery including a tiara and necklace while holding a statuette of Venus De Milo as if it were a microphone. A plaster sculpture of Alice’s brain, topped by a chocolate éclair covered in ants, another Dalí oeuvre, was placed behind the cross-legged rock star and the set-up was documented by Dalí using (then) cutting-edge hologram technology.
|In July 2012 the New Museum in New York presented “Pictures from the Moon, an exhibition of rarely seen holographic works by several major artists including Bruce Nauman, Louise Bourgeois, Eric Orr, Ed Ruscha and James Turrell (who had a Large holograms show at Pace Wildenstein in 2009).|